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Chaikin Money Flow


Developed by Marc Chaikin, Chaikin Money Flow measures the amount of Money Flow Volume over a specific period. Money Flow Volume forms the basis for the Accumulation Distribution Line. Instead of a cumulative total of Money Flow Volume, Chaikin Money Flow simply sums Money Flow Volume for a specific look-back period, typically 20 or 21 days. The resulting indicator fluctuates above/below the zero line just like an oscillator. Chartists weigh the balance of buying or selling pressure with the absolute level of Chaikin Money Flow. Chartists can also look for crosses above or below the zero line to identify changes on money flow.

Chaikin Money Flow Interpretation

Chaikin Money Flow (CMF) is an oscillator that fluctuates between -1 and +1. Rarely, if ever, will the indicator reach these extremes. It would take 20 consecutive closes on the high (low) for 20-day Chaikin Money Flow to reach +1 (-1). Typically, this oscillator fluctuates between -0.50 and +0.50 with zero as the centerline.

Chaikin Money Flow measures buying and selling pressure for a given period of time. A move into positive territory indicates buying pressure, while a move into negative territory indicates selling pressure. Chartists can use the absolute value of Chaikin Money Flow to confirm or question the price action of the underlying. Positive CMF would confirm an uptrend, but negative CMF would call into question the strength behind an uptrend. The reverse holds true for downtrends.


Chaikin Money Flow can be used to define a general buying or selling bias simply with positive or negative values. The indicator oscillates above/below the zero line. Generally, buying pressure is stronger when the indicator is positive and selling pressure is stronger when the indicator is negative.

While this zero line cross seems simple enough, the reality is much choppier. Chaikin Money Flow sometimes only briefly crosses the zero line with a move that turns the indicator barely positive or negative. There is no follow through and this zero line cross ends up becoming a whipsaw (bad signal). Chartists can filter these signals with buffers by setting the bullish threshold a little above zero (+0.05) and the bearish threshold a little below zero (-0.05). These thresholds will not entirely eliminate bad signals, but can help reduce whipsaws and filter out.

The chart above shows Freeport McMoran (FCX) with 20-day Chaikin Money Flow in the indicator window. There were at least 10 crosses of the zero line between February and December 2010. Adding a small buffer greatly reduced the number of bullish and bearish signals. A move above +0.05 was considered bullish, while a move below -0.05 was considered bearish. There were only three signals. While these signals will come a little later, it may be worth it to reduce whipsaw.

The chart for Harley Davidson (HOG) shows a few good signals and a whipsaw with the May bounce. CMF moved above +0.05 for a few days, but this move failed to hold and the indicator broke back below -0.05 in early June. Whipsaws are going to happen, especially during volatile periods or when the trend flattens. CMF turned bullish in July and stayed bullish the rest of the year. Notice that HOG formed a falling wedge that retraced just over 62% in August, when CMF was still in bull mode. This pullback offered a second chance to partake in the CMF forex signals .

Chaikin Money Flow is not suited for all securities. The chart above shows P.F. Chang (PFCB) with some 18 crosses above +0.05 or below -0.05. Basing CMF signals on these crosses resulted in one whipsaw after another. It is important to analyze the basic price trend and the characteristics of an indicator with a particular security. PFCB exhibits some trend, but price action within this trend is choppy and money flow cannot maintain a positive or negative bias. It would be better to find a different indicator for this stocks.


Chaikin Money Flow is an oscillator that measures buying and selling forex signals over a set period of time. At its most basic, money flow favors the bulls when CMF is positive and the bears when negative. Chartists looking for quicker money flow shifts can look for bullish and bearish divergences. Be careful though. Selling pressure still has the edge in negative territory, even when there is a bullish divergence. This bullish divergence simply shows less selling pressure. It takes a move into positive territory to indicate actual buying pressure. As a money flow oscillator, CMF can be used in conjunction with pure price oscillators, such as MACD or RSI. As with all indicators, Chaikin Money Flow should not be used as a stand-alone indicator. Marc Chaikin also developed the Accumulation Distribution Line and the Chaikin Oscillator.

free forex signals is Opportunity Trading alerts to trade on a currency pair or gold at Exact entry, exit and stop loss levels 

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Free gold fx trading signals today live from 1299


Free gold fx trading signals today live from free forex signals the best forex signals provider presents sell gold trading signal 


BUY @ 1299

TP @ 1313

SL @ 1292

gold trading signals today Description by words

XAU USD is preferred to sell on GOLD market

type order Market Execution 

Take profit TP @ 1313

Place stop loss   SL @ 1292

GOLD analysis

BULLISH ZIGZAG is the Price pattern recognized today for daily free forex trading signals

gold establish bullish trend from level 1280 and made 2 bullish wave so free forex signals expect bullish trend in near term will continue 

gold price test the uptrend line for the third time near 1300 which generate buy signal today 

Important Support level today IS 1292

Indicators indicates to bullish Next wave on very near term

free GBP USD FOREX trading signals


BUY @ 1.3190

TP @ 1.3260

SL @ 1.3150


free forex signals is Opportunity Trading alerts to trade on a currency pair or gold at Exact entry point , take profit and stop loss levels 



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GOLD and EUR USD live accurate Free forex signals


live accurate Free forex signals and buy gold trading signals today


BUY @ 1310

TP @ 1324

SL @ 1303

forex trading signals today Description by words

gold  is preferred to buy on XAU USD marketS today

type order Market Execution

your Take profit will be TP @ 1324

Place stop loss   SL @ 1303

gold – xau usd Free forex trading signals analysis

bullish gold Trend is still current and gold price touched the bullish Trend lines for fourth time and generate buy gold trading signal

basic elliott wave pattern recognized today for daily free forex trading signals

and it is prefer to go with the uptrend

Fibonacci EXPANSION equal 100 % of bullish waves

level 1304 is Important Support level today

Technical analysis and trading Intuition indicates  to bullish Next wave on hourly chart

EUR USD FREE forex trading signals live and the best accurate forex signals


BUY @ 1.1290

TP @ 1.1360

SL @ 1.1250



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Position trading includes opening fewer exchanges than other trading styles, however, the positions will, in general, be of higher worth. While this expands the potential revenue-driven, it likewise builds the trader's presentation to risk. Position traders need a lot of persistence to adhere to the standards spread out in their trading plan – realizing when to close a position and when to allow benefits to run.

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What is forex?

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What is forex?

If you've ever gone on holiday and exchanged say, pounds for euros, then you've participated in the forex market. Simply put:


Forex is how individuals and businesses convert one currency to another.



Forex, also known as foreign exchange, FX or the currency market, is the largest financial market in the world. On average over $5 trillion worth of transactions take place every day. That's around 100 times more than the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) - the world's biggest stock exchange.


As well as being traded by individuals and businesses, forex is also important for financial institutions, central banks, and governments. It facilitates international trade and investment by allowing companies that earn money in one currency to pay for goods and services in another.


Who trades forex?

There are a huge number of market participants looking to trade forex at any particular time, from individual speculators wanting to turn a quick profit, to central banks trying to control the amount of currency in circulation.


However, by far the most significant players in the forex market are the major international banks. Between them, Citigroup, Deutsche Bank, Barclays, JPMorgan and UBS account for around 50% of global forex trade.


Euromoney FX Survey

Why do people trade forex?

Individuals and businesses participate in the forex market for two main reasons:



The vast majority of forex transactions are made simply to make money. This means the person or institution making the trade has no plans to take delivery of the currency, they are just looking to turn a profit on movements in the market.


With major financial institutions always looking to profit from small changes in forex prices, many large trades can occur throughout the day. This activity means currency rates are some of the most consistently volatile financial markets in the world - which in turn provides more opportunity for speculators to make money.


Purchasing goods or services in another currency

Every time a transaction is made between two entities in different regions, a foreign exchange transaction needs to take place to pay for the goods or services exchanged. Transactions such as this happen globally, every second of every day.


Despite the number of transactions, the amount of currency traded is often very small compared to trades made by large speculators. Therefore commercial trading tends not to have such a big effect on short-term market rates.


How do you trade forex?

Unlike share trading, forex is an over-the-counter (OTC) market. This means that currencies are exchanged directly between two parties rather than through an exchange.


The forex market is run electronically via a global network of banks - it has no central location, and trades can take place anywhere via a forex broker of your choice. This also means that you can trade forex at any time, so long as it's during trading hours in any one of the four major forex trading centres (London, New York, Sydney and Tokyo).


Forex trading hours: April-October (UK time)

Forex Trading Hours

In practice, that means you can trade most forex pairs from around 21:00 or 22:00 (UK time) on Sunday to 21:00 or 22:00 (UK time) on Friday, every week. The exact times can vary due to daylight saving time changes in the UK, USA and Australia.


How does a forex trade work?

Forex prices are always quoted in pairs such as AUD/EUR, which stands for the Australian dollar versus the euro. This is because if you want to purchase Australian dollars you need to buy them with another currency, like euros.


When trading forex you are simultaneously BUYING one currency while SELLING another.



Lesson summary

Forex is how individuals and businesses convert one currency to another

The main players in the market are major international banks

Speculation accounts for the vast majority of transactions

It's an over-the-counter (OTC) market, where trades take place directly between two parties rather than through an exchange

Forex is traded in pairs - you are simultaneously buying one currency while selling another

The first currency in every pair is the base or primary currency. The second is the quote or counter currency

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82  Elliott Wave Principle and Combination (Double and Triple Three)

free forex signals Elliott called a sideways combination of two corrective patterns a "double three" and three patterns a "triple three." While a single three is any zigzag or flat, a triangle is an allowable final component of such combinations and in this context is called a "three." A combination is composed of simpler types of corrections, including zigzags, flats and triangles. Their occurrence appears to be the flat correction’s way of extending sideways action. As with double and triple zigzags, the simple corrective pattern components are labeled W, Y and Z. Each reactionary wave, labeled X, can take the shape of any corrective pattern but is most commonly a zigzag. As with multiple zigzags, three patterns appear to be the limit, and even those are rare compared to the more common double three.

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Combinations of threes were labeled differently by Elliott at different times, although the illustrative pattern always took the shape of two or three juxtaposed flats, as shown in Figures 1-45 and 1-46. However, the component patterns more commonly alternate in form. For example, a flat followed by a triangle is a more typical type of double three (which we now know as of 1983; see Appendix), as illustrated in Figure 1-47.

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A flat followed by a zigzag is another example, as shown in Figure 1-48. Naturally, since the figures in this section depict corrections in bull markets, they need only be inverted to observe them as upward corrections in bear markets.


Figure 1-47


Figure 1-48

For the most part, a combination is horizontal in character. Elliott indicated that the entire formation could slant against the larger trend, although we have never found this to be the case. One reason is that there never appears to be more than one zigzag in a combination. Neither is there more than one triangle. Recall that triangles occurring alone precede the final movement of a larger trend. Combinations appear to recognize this character and sport triangles only as the final wave in a double or triple three.

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Although different in that their angle of trend is sharper than the sideways trend of combinations (see the guideline of alternation in Chapter 2), double and triple zigzags (see Figure 1-26) can be characterized as non-horizontal combinations, as Elliott seemed to suggest in Nature’s Law. But double and triple threes are different from double and triple zigzags not only in their angle but in their goal. In a double or triple zigzag, the first zigzag is rarely large enough to constitute an adequate price correction of the preceding wave. The doubling or tripling of the initial form is usually necessary to create an adequately sized price retracement. In a combination, however, the first simple pattern often constitutes an adequate price correction. The doubling or tripling appears to occur mainly to extend the duration of the corrective process after price targets have been substantially met. Sometimes additional time is needed to reach a channel line or achieve a stronger kinship with the other correction in an impulse. As the consolidation continues, the attendant psychology and fundamentals extend their trends accordingly.

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As this section makes clear, there is a qualitative difference between the series 3 + 4 + 4 + 4, etc., and the series 5 + 4 + 4 + 4, etc. Notice that while an impulse wave has a total count of 5, with extensions leading to 9 or 13 waves, and so on, a corrective wave has a count of 3, with combinations leading to 7 or 11 waves, and so on. The triangle appears to be an exception, although it can be counted as one would a triple three, totaling 11 waves. Thus, if an internal count is unclear, you can sometimes reach a reasonable conclusion merely by counting waves. A count of 9, 13 or 17 with few overlaps, for instance, is likely motive, while a count of 7, 11 or 15 with numerous overlaps is likely corrective. The main exceptions are diagonals of both types, which are hybrids of motive and corrective forces.

Orthodox Tops and Bottoms

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Sometimes a pattern’s end differs from the associated price extreme. In such cases, the end of the pattern is called the "orthodox" top or bottom in order to differentiate it from the actual price high or low that occurs intra-pattern or after the end of the pattern. For example, in Figure 1-14, the end of wave (5) is the orthodox top despite the fact that wave (3) registered a higher price. In Figure 1-13, the end of wave 5 is the orthodox bottom. In Figures 1-33 and 1-34, the starting point of wave A is the orthodox top of the preceding bull market despite the higher high of wave B. In Figures 1-35 and 1-36, the start of wave A is the orthodox bottom. In Figure 1-47, the end of wave Y is the orthodox bottom of the bear market even though the price low occurs at the end of wave W.


This concept is important primarily because a successful analysis always depends upon a proper labeling of the patterns. Assuming falsely that a particular price extreme is the correct starting point for wave labeling can throw analysis off for some time, while being aware of the requirements of wave form will keep you on track. Further, when applying the forecasting concepts that will be introduced in Chapter 4, the length and duration of a wave are typically determined by measuring from and projecting orthodox ending points.

Reconciling Funtion and Mode

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Earlier in this chapter, we described the two functions waves may perform (action and reaction), as well as the two modes of structural development (motive and corrective) that they undergo. Now that we have reviewed all types of waves, we can summarize their labels as follows:

— The labels for actionary waves are 1, 3, 5, A, C, E, W, Y and Z.

— The labels for reactionary waves are 2, 4, B, D and X.

As stated earlier, all reactionary waves develop in corrective mode, and most actionary waves develop in motive mode. The preceding sections have described which actionary waves develop in corrective mode. They are:

— waves 1, 3 and 5 in an ending diagonal,

— wave A in a flat correction,

— waves A, C and E in a triangle,

— waves W and Y in a double zigzag and a double three,

— wave Z in a triple zigzag and a triple three.

Because the waves listed above are actionary in relative direction yet develop in corrective mode, we term them "actionary corrective" waves.



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Article -

What are long-term investments?
Long-term investment is an account on the assets side of a company's balance sheet that represents a company's investment, including stocks, bonds, real estate, and cash. Long-term investments are assets that the company intends to hold for more than a year.

The long-term investment account differs greatly from the short-term investment account in that short-term investments are likely to be sold, while long-term investments will not sell for years, and in some cases, may never sell.

Being a long-term investor means that you are willing to accept a certain amount of risk in pursuit of higher potential rewards and that you can afford to be patient for a longer period of time. It also suggests that you have enough available capital to link a specific amount over a long period of time.

The main exit
Long-term investment is an account that the company plans to maintain for at least a year, such as stocks, bonds, real estate, and cash.
The account appears on the asset side of the company's balance sheet.
Long-term investors are generally willing to take more risks for higher rewards.
These differ from short-term investments, which will be sold within a year.
Long-term investments
The clearest long-term investment
A common form of long-term investment occurs when Company A invests heavily in Company B and gains significant influence over Company B without acquiring the majority of voting shares. In this case, the purchase price will be shown as a long-term investment.

When a holding company or other company purchases bonds or shares of common stock as investments, the decision to classify them as short or long term has some somewhat important implications for the way these assets are valued on the balance sheet. Short-term investments in the market are distinguished, and any impairment is recognized as a loss.

However, increases in value are not recognized until the good is sold. Therefore, the classification of the balance of an investment, whether long or short term, has a direct impact on the net income that is recorded in the income statement.

Investments held to maturity
If the entity intends to hold the investment until it matures and the company can demonstrate its ability to do so, it is observed that the investment is "held to maturity". The investment is made at cost, although the premiums or discounts are amortized over the life of the investment.

For example, the classic investment to maturity was the purchase of PayPal by eBay in 2002. Once PayPal significantly developed its infrastructure and user base, it launched as its own company in 2015 with a five-year agreement to continue processing payments to eBay. This investment helped PayPal grow while allowing eBay to benefit from having a world-class payment processing solution for nearly two decades.

The long-term investment can be written to adequately reflect a low value. However, there may be no adjustments to temporary market volatility. Since investments must have an expiration date, the securities cannot be classified as held until maturity.

Available for sale and commercial investment
Investments held for resale during the year for short-term gains are classified as current investments. Commercial investment may not be a long-term investment. However, the company may continue to invest with the intention of selling in the future.

These investments are classified as "available for sale" as long as the expected sale date is not within 12 months. Long-term investments available for sale are recorded at cost when purchased and subsequently adjusted to reflect their fair values at the end of the reporting period. Unrealized gains or losses from holding are retained as "other comprehensive income" until the long-term investment is sold.


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